Gallbladder cancer in the world: epidemiology, incidence, mortality and risk factors

WCRJ 2018; 5 (3): e1124

  Topic: Genitourinary cancer     Category:

Abstract

Objective: Gallbladder cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with a poor prognosis. It is the sixth digestive tract cancer and one of the most common cancers in biliary ducts. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, mortality, and risk factors for gallbladder cancer in the world.
Materials and Methods: This review study was conducted on published English studies by January 2017 through a search of PubMed, Scopus and web of science databases. The search strategy included key words "gallbladder cancer", "epidemiology", "incidence", "mortality", "risk factors", "world". Studies related to incidence, mortality, and causes of gallbladder cancers were also studied and included.
Results: The five countries with the highest incidence of kidney cancer were Chile, Bolivia, Korea, Republic of, Lao PDR and Japan. The standard incidence of gallbladder cancer in the world was 2.2 per 100000. The five countries with the highest death rates were Chile, Bolivia, Korea, Republic of, Lao PDR and Nepal. The standardized death rate for gallbladder in the world was 1.7 per 100000 people. The most important risk factors for the cancer include gallstones, porcelain gallbladder, gallbladder polyps, bacterial and salmonella infections, chronic inflammation. Fruit and vegetable consumption and obesity are known as a protective agent for this cancer.
Conclusions: The incidence of gallbladder cancer worldwide has a geographic variable pattern. Generally, knowledge of the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis has a significant effect on the treatment of gallbladder cancer. It is also necessary to consider the risk factors to reduce this cancer.

To cite this article

Gallbladder cancer in the world: epidemiology, incidence, mortality and risk factors

WCRJ 2018; 5 (3): e1124

Publication History

Submission date: 06 Apr 2018

Revised on: 28 Jun 2018

Accepted on: 26 Jul 2018

Published online: 20 Sep 2018