The incidence, risk factors, and knowledge about the prostate cancer through worldwide and Iran

WCRJ 2017; 4 (4): e972

  Topic: Genitourinary cancer     Category:

Abstract

Objective: The aims of this review study were to provide awareness about PCa as well as an updated knowledge about the incidence, risk factors, and knowledge of PCa in Iran and all over the world.
Materials and Methods: A rapid literature search strategy was conducted for all English language literature published before March 2017. The search was conducted using the electronic database PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Sciences. The search strategy included the keywords ‘prostate cancer’, ‘epidemiology’, ‘incidence’, ‘mortality’, ‘risk factor’, ‘survival, ‘Iran’, and ‘worldwide’.
Results: Incidence rates are relatively high in certain less developed regions. The lowest incidence rates are observed in Central and Eastern European countries and also in Asian populations. Mortality rates are generally high in predominantly black populations. The main risk factors associated with PCa are as follow: smoking and drinking, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, geographical area, family medical history, genetic changes, race/ethnicity, occupation, excessive use of micronutrient, estrogen metabolism, obesity, inflammation of the prostate, vasectomy and sexual activity/sexually transmitted diseases.
Conclusions: This study may provide considerable evidence for PCa’s major and minor risk factors. This may be helpful in identifying subsets of the population who are more at risk of developing PCa. Effective preventive actions, such as health education, nutritional intervention, and screening programs, are needed especially in high-risk areas of the world.

To cite this article

The incidence, risk factors, and knowledge about the prostate cancer through worldwide and Iran

WCRJ 2017; 4 (4): e972

Publication History

Submission date: 27 Sep 2017

Revised on: 10 Oct 2017

Accepted on: 24 Oct 2017

Published online: 15 Dec 2017